Germany

Graphology (“Handwriting-Psychology”) has been taught in various German universities for 80 years as part of study programs in philosophy, psychology, criminology and medicine. Some examples:

Prof. Robert Heiss, one of the major German graphologists, chaired the school of Psychology and Philosophy of the Albert Ludwigs University in Freiburg for over 30 years (1943-1973). He introduced two years’ graphology courses that were obligatory for all psychology students. Important psychologists in Heiss’ department were Bender, Szondi and Lüscher (developers of the tests named after them), and Zolliger (one of the Rorschach Test developers). Heiss was also president of the International Rorschach Society. Prof. Oskar Lockowandt succeeded Heiss, until his death in 2000.

Rudolf Pophal was a professor of  medicine and graphology lecturer at Hamburg University.

Lutz Wagner was a graphology professor in Ludwig-Maximilians-University in Munich for 20 years (1955-1975). At present, Dr. Helmut Ploog teaches graphology at that university and can be seen here talking about his work.

Dr. Gabriele Schmidt, Prof. Dietrich Ebert and Prof. Reinhardt Ludewig have been teaching Graphology (“Psychology of Handwriting”) and Medical Graphology at Leipzig University, since 1994.

The Association of German Psychologists (Berufsverband Deutscher Psychologinnen und Psychologen – BPD) was established in 1946, and one of its first sections was “Handwriting-Psychologists” (graphologists). In 1988 the graphological section Fachbereich Schriftpsychologen consented to absorb also the medical and the environmental psychologists.

Graphology is taught in professional courses and continuing programs by the professional societies belonging to the European Society of Handwriting-Psychology and Handwriting-Expertise (Europäischen Gesellschaft für Schriftpsychologie und Schriftexpertise – EGS).

Private courses are also available, and there are many individual graphologists or those affiliated to other societies than the BDP.

2015